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Full text of "The enduring legacy: a pictorial history of the Toledo Museum of Art"

Olie Cjndurinq Id eg acq 

A Pictorial History of the Toledo Museum of Art 



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CBoarcfofUrustee JKem6ers 1901—2001 



Jacquelyn Adams 
Edward H. Alexander 
Michele Alexander 
Darryl F. Allen 
Karl J. Alter 
Richard P. Anderson 
John D. Anderson 
Vernelis K Armstrong 
Charles Ashley 
Robert Barber 
Walter Bareiss 
Richard W. Bayer 
Lawrence G. Bell 
Hubert D. Bennett 
James E. Bentley 
Sally Bergsmark 
John D. Biggers 
William K. Block, Jr. 
Dee Blumer 
William E. Bock 
Harold Boeschenstein 
William W. Boeschenstein 
Elizabeth Boeschenstein 
Ronald C. Boiler 
William M. Booker 
James L. Brown 
Clarence Brown 
WardM. Canaday 
Ralph E. Carpenter 
Susan S. Can 
Samuel G. Carson 
F. Earle Cazayoux 
Aaron Chesbrough 
Molly P. Chiles 
Steven R. Coffin 
Harry E. Collin 
John K. Davis 
Curtis W. Davis 
Pamela Davis 
Frederick Deal 
Sara Jane DeHoff 
Chester Devenow 
Thomas A. DeVilbiss 
Howard P. DeVilbiss 
Edwin D. Dodd 
Thomas B. Donnell 
John R. Donnell 
James C. Donnell II 
John H. Doyle 
William C. Draper 
Phyllis Driggs 
Glen R. Driscoll 
LeRoy E. Eastman 
Bartlett E. Emery 
Helen H. Emmert 
Nancy R. Fairhurst 
Janell Falter 
James P. Falvey 



1994-present 

1973-present 

1987-1988 

1987-present 

1933 -1975 

1984-present 

1972-1986 

2001-present 

1901-1925 

1989-1998 

1986-present 

1975-1986 

1971-1994 

1928-1951 

1933-1955 

2000-2001 

1935-1974 

1987-present 

1987-1988 

1919-1932 

1940-1972 

1973-present 

1973-2001 

1 993— present 

1922-1944 

1 993-present 

1906-1918 

1930-1976 

1952-1967 

1999-2001 

1 967-present 

1965-1977 

1904-1912 

1994-present 

1994-present 

1954-1972 

1960-1975 

1967-1981 

1998-1999 

1991-1992 

1 995-present 

1 979-present 

1924-1928 

1945-1971 

1973-2001 

1993— present 

1982-present 

1972-1984 

1904-1919 

1961-1974 

1988-1989 

1976-1985 

1959-1969 

1951-1963 

1985-present 

1980-present 

1989-1990/1996-1997 

1954-1977 



George R. Ford 
Edward Ford 
Robert A. Foster 
Robert V. Franklin 
Rath bun Fuller 
Frederick L. Geddes 

Virgil A. Gladieux 
Blake-More Godwin 

William A. Gosline, Jr. 
Mildred Gosman 
Ira W. Gotshall 
Elmer A. Graham 
Barbara Gravengaard 
Edward B. Green 
Mary Ann Hagy 

George W Haigh 
Ruth Hanson 

William Hardee 

Kenneth Herrick 

William J. Hitchcock 

Robert Hixon 
James A. Hoffman 
John Hoffman 
Frank E. Horton 

Charles E. Ide 

Phyllis Ide 

Yolanda S. Jackson 

Tracy A. Jamieson 

George Johnson 

Richard R. Johnston 
Joyce Jones 

George M. Jones, III 

George M. Jones, Jr. 

Severn Joyce 

Edgar F Kaiser 

Barbara Kaplin 
Jerome F. Kapp 

Rita Kern 

Frank I. King 
J. T. Kirkby 

Carol Kiroff 

Frank L. Kloeb 

William Windus Knight 

Milton Knight 

Edward F Knight 

Isaac E. Knisely 

Marvin S. Ko backer 

Alfred B. Koch 

Dominick Labino 

Robert G Landers 

Otto Landman 

Albion E. Lang 

Robert J. Lanigan 

Frances Leighton 

Joseph H. Lemieux 

Margaret Levis 

J. Preston Levis 

(continued on inside b.ick cover) 



1921-1924 

1911-1920 

1976-1994 

1988-present 

1921-1937 

1903-1930 

1981-1996 

1954-1975 

1912-1947 

1979-1994 

1921-1952 

1979-1989 

1993-1994 

1933-1950 

1995-1996 

1974— present 

1992-1993 

1901-1922 

1985-present 

1973-1981 

1915-1924 

1994-present 

1906-1909 

1989-present 

1956-1959 

1984-1985 

1 993— present 

1998-1999 

1920-1922 

1942-1973 

1986-1993 

1989-present 

1953-1988 

1982-present 

1954-1958/1963-1969 

1989-present 

1965-1991 

1992-present 

1901-1912 

1991-1993 

1997-1998 

1953-1975 

1938-1969 

1956-1971 

1969-present 

1901-1924 

1957-1993 

1922-1933 

1974-1987 

1954-1973 

1901-1906 

1904-1912 

1984-present 

1984-1985 

1995-1999 

1963-1982 

1953-1973 



Une ijndurjnq loeoacu 



A Pictorial History of the Toledo Museum of Art 



Julie A. McMaster 




Acknowledgments 

The celebration of 1 00 years of the Toledo 
Museum of Art's history is something of which I 
have been very grateful to be a part. I would like to 
thank the members of the Centennial Society, Mr. 
and Mrs. Robert L. Huebner, and Mrs. Edward A. 
Kern for making the publication of this book and 
many other Centennial projects a reality. 

The museum's director, Roger M. Berkowitz, has 
given unwavering support to the planning and 
implementation of the archives and all projects 
that document the history of the institution since 
the museum archives' inception in 1996. With 
the museum's one-hundredth anniversary 
approaching, he saw that an archives would not 
only be an invaluable research tool for centennial 
projects but also a legacy for future generations. 

Over the years and especially throughout this 
project, I have been many times amazed at the 
cooperation, dedication, and resourcefulness of 
the staff of this museum. Special thanks must go 
to Suzanne Rorick for coordination of the project; 
Sandra E. Knudsen, who patiently mentored and 
guided me; and Rochelle R. Slosser, whose 
creativity brought this book to life. Kathy Gee 
and the other members of the Visual Resources 
Center — Carolyn Putney, Nicole Rivette, and 
Michael Dorn — deserve special thanks for their 
willingness to drop everything to help me during 
my search for images. 

Others who have been invaluable include Erin 
Appleby, Marilyn Czerniejewski, Mary Karazim, 
Barbara Meyer, Lee Mooney, Anne Morris, Tasha 
Seren, Steve Shrake, Nadine Smith, Patricia 
White-sides, and Matthew Wiederhold. In 
hundreds of ways, this book could not have been 
accomplished without the help of so many people. 

Jim Marshall and Michael Lora of the Toledo- 
Lucas County Public Library, Local History 
Department, have been especially helpful in 
providing photographs and resources. Mary 
Mackzum or The Blade Asa deserves thanks for her 
cooperation and assistance, as well as for arranging 
permission to print The Blade's images in this book. 
Jean Atterbury, niece of Blake-More and Molly 
Godwin, must also be thanked for generously 
sharing the letters, papers, and photographs of her 
family. GregTye and David Jablonski ofWGTE 



Public Television must also be thanked for their 
help with several images used in this book. 

This book is lovingly dedicated to my parents, 
who have loved, supported, and encouraged me 
throughout my entire life, and to Fred Matticola, 
who has been a source of strength to me for 
many years. 

Julie A. McMaster, Archivist 

Photograph Credits 

Unless otherwise indicared, all non-arr photo- 
graphs are from Toledo Museum of Art Archives. 
Black-and-white photographs, color transparencies, 
color slides, and digital images of archival photos 
and art objects may be ordered. 

Abbreviations for locations of photos on page 
include: tl - top left, mr - middle right, 11 - lower 
left , etc. Abbreviations for the sources of images 
include: Blade- The Blades photograph collection; 
RG — Toledo Museum of Art Registrar, TLCPL - 
The Toledo-Lucas County Public Library; VRC- 
Toledo Museum of Art Visual Resources 
Collection. 

Front Cover: Drawing class taught by Mrs. Grace 
Rhodes Dean at the museum's School of Design, 
Summer 1923; Title Page: Children at the 
museum, 1958, photo by Herral Long; Table of 
Contents: Little girl painting, no date; Foreword: 
Moonlight and columns, 1962, photo by Jack N. 
Curtis; Pg. 5 F.dwatd Drummond and Florence 
Scott Libbey; Pg. 7 tr, print by Milton Zink of 
cover of Scientific American Magazine, April 30, 
1904; br, print by Milton Zink of original photo; 
Pg. 8 tl - RG; tr, and mb, photos by Walinger 
Studio Chicago; Pg. 9 1906 membership card; Pg. 
10 tl, postcard. Progressive News Co. Publishers; tr 

- TLCPL; lr, line drawing from Toledo Daily News. 
December 3, 1901; Pg. 1 1 tl - RG; mr- Blade; mb 

- VRC; Pg. 12 lr - photo courtesy of Jean 
Atterbury; Pg. 13 tl - TLCPL, mb, The Toledo 
Museum of Art Plans and Purposes, Toledo, 1912; 
Pg. 14 tl - RG, photo by Tim Thayer; tr and mr - 
RG; Pg. 15 Construction of building, around 
1910; Pg. 17 tr, photo by Manning Bros.; m and 
lr, The Toledo Museum of Art Plans and Purposes, 
Toledo, 1912; Pg. 18 tl - RG, Pg. 19 Sketching 
class, about 1920; Pg. 21 mr - photo courtesy of 
Jean Atterbury; Pg. 25 Sketch of addition by 
Edward Green, architect; Pg. 26 m - RG; Pg. 27 tl 
& tr, Museum News, no. 47, Feb. 1925; Pg. 28 tr, - 



RG; Pg. 29 lr and m - RG, Pg. 31 Otto Wittmann 
and Sue Carter, 1957; Pg. 33 tl and tr - RG, lr - 
RG, photo by Tim Thayer; Pg. 34 tl, photo by 
Hauger & Dorf; tr, photo by Tom O'Reilly; mb, 
photo by Robert Packo Foto Lab; Pg. 35 tr, photo 
by Garrison Studio; Pg. 37 Docent David McMurry 
lecturing in Classic Court, fall 2000 - VRC; Pg. 38 
tl, photo by Diane Hires; m - RG, photo by Tim 
Thayer, © 1990 Harvey K. Littleton; Pg. 39 all - 
RG, photos by Tim Thayer; Pg. 40 mr - RG, © 
Estate of David Smith/Licensed by VAGA, New 
York, NY; Pg. 41 tl - RG, photo by Tim Thayer; mr 

- VRC; Pg. 42 tl, photo by Cervin Robinson; tr - 
VRC, photo by Balthazar Korab Ltd.; lr - RG, © 
1996 Dale Chihuly, photo by R. K. Loesch; Pg. 43 
tr - VRC, photo by Richard Putney; 11, photo by 
Tim Thayer; Pg. 44 tl - Blade, tr - Blade, Pg. 45 tl 

- RG, © 1984 Anselm Kiefer, courtesy of Anthony 
d'Offay Gallery, London; mb - RG, photo by Tim 
Thayer; Pg. 46 all - VRC; Pg. 47 photo courtesy of 
Roger Berkowitz; Pg. 48 Jane Tillotson, October 10, 
1 955 - Blade photo in TMA Archives 

FIRST EDITION 

© 2001 Toledo Museum of Art 

All Rights Reserved. 

Except for legitimate excerpts customary in review 
or scholarly publications, no part of this book may 
be reproduced by any means without the express 
written permission of the publisher. 

ISBN 0-935172-10-6 

Printed in the United States of America. All rights 
reserved under International and Pan-American 
Copyright Conventions. 

Toledo Museum of Art 

2445 Monroe Street 

P.O. Box 1013 

Toledo, Ohio 43697-1013 

Telephone 419-255-8000 

Fax 419-255-5638 

Internet www.toledomuseum.org 

Project Supervisor: Sandra E. Knudsen 
Designer: Rochelle R. Slosser 

Typography: Adobe Garamond and Nuptial Script 
Printing: Superior Printing, Warren, Ohio 



Uaole of Cjon/en/s 




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ounoers 



5—8 



The Libbeys of Toledo; Toledo 
Becomes "The Glass City"; 
An Introduction to the Arts 

\Jl Jltuseum is Jjorn 9 — 14 

April 18, 1901; Humble Beginnings; 
George Washington Stevens; Early 
Success; A Collection Begins 



lA OCew Jio, 



15—18 



Campaign and Planning; A Building 
Complete; Inaugural Celebration 

&arfy Cflctiuxties 19—24 

City Beautiful Campaign and Bird and 
Tree Club; The Museum and World 
War I; Boy Police and Assistant Docents; 
A Place that Welcomed Children; 
School of Design 



J) tu' Id ma (Expansions 25—30 

Expansion Planning; 1926 Additions; 
The Loss of Two Great Men; Florence 
Scott Libbey and Further Expansion; 
1933 Building 

Worfc/War 99 and Zdfter 31-36 

The Museum and World War II; 
Maturing Collections; Post- War 
Popularity; The Benevolent Volunteer; 
A Successful School 



J/ie J^ecent J J asl 



37—48 



The Studio Glass Movement; 
Accommodating the Collections; 
The Museum and its Neighborhood; 
The Art of Giving; Changing Times, 
Changing Styles-Major Renovations; 
Exhibitions; Treasures for Toledo; 
Partners Since 1921; An Interactive 
Museum; Museum Leadership 



£?< 



orewor 



j 




, — — i > j pleasure common to many 
/J families is sitting down 
^^S A. together and looking through 
albums of family photographs and 
clippings. This volume, The Enduring 
Legacy: A Pictorial History of the Toledo 
Museum of Art, is the album for our 
museum family. We publish it on the 
occasion of our one-hundredth birthday. 
We hope that it will enable readers to 
gain a sense of the vision of our founders, 
of the dedication of staff and volunteers 
over our first century, and of the vibrant 
existence ol this internationally respected 
community institution. 



In 1996, a formal archives was estab- 
lished at the museum, and the docu- 
ments and photographs found in this 
book come largely from this collection. 

The concept for this publication was 
carried out by museum staff with the 
particular efforts of Julie A. McMaster, 
author; Sandra E. Knudsen, editor; and 
Rochelle Slosser, graphic designer. The 
realization of the project, however, was 
only possible through the specific 
generosity of the Centennial Society, 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Huebner, and 
Mrs. Edward A. Kern. 



Roger M. Berkowitz 
Director 



useum grounders 




K [Rl 



twentieth 
century, wealthy American families felt 
a responsibility to give back to the 
communities in which they had made 
their great fortunes. This philanthropy 
benefited many cities, including those 
in the Midwest that gained prominence 
during America's Industrial Revolution. 
Among them was Toledo, Ohio, which, 
in 1901, became the site of a new mu- 
seum of art, thanks to the vision of glass 
magnate Edward Drummond Libbey 
and his wife, Florence Scott Libbey. 



m 



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ounoers 



A Brilliant Wedding . . . The 
Scott-Libbey Nuptials One of 
the Social Events of the Season 

The elegant new residence of Mr. 
Maurice Scott, on Monroe street, 
was brilliant with lights and 
flowers and elegant toilettes last 
evening, the occasion being the 
marriage of the daughter of the 
house, Miss Florence Scott, to Mr. 
E. D. Libbey. 




Toledo Blade, June 25, 1 890 



Florence Scott Libbey 



Une ioiooeys ofUoledo 

*~ - j he oldest child and only son 
/ of William and Julia Libbey, 

v y Edward Drummond Libbey was 

born in Boston in April 1854. Hoping 
to become a minister, young Edward 
attended Maine Wesleyan Seminary, but 
plans were dashed by a throat infection 
that damaged his voice. Forced to look for 
another career, he returned to work at his 
fathers glass factory. In 1887, four years 
after his father's death, Edward Libbey 
began to search for a Midwestern site to 
relocate his glass factory. He chose Toledo. 

Florence Scott was the daughter of 
Maurice and Mary Scott. Florence's 
father Maurice and uncles William and 
Frank leveraged their father Jessup's land 
investments into careers as a real estate 



developer, lawyer, and architect/writer 
respectively. Born into one of Toledo's 
most socially prominent and influential 
families, Florence was educated in 
boarding schools and, as a young woman, 
traveled extensively. 

After a chance encounter in Toledo realtor 
George Pomeroy's office, Libbey arranged 
to be formally introduced to Miss Scott. 
They were married in her father's home 
on June 24, 1890. In 1895 the Libbeys 
commissioned architect David L. Stine 
to design and build their home on 
Scottwood Avenue in Toledo's fashion- 
able West End. That same year, their 
only child William was born and 
died just nine months later. 

Edward 

Drummond 

Libbey 




JKu.seum founders 




Libbey Glass Company, about 1888 



Uoledo Jje comes u Une S?fass Gifu" 



* < j n 1883, Edward Drummond 
(^ / Libbey inherited the New 
^^S England Glass Works from 
his father. Within a few years, Libbey 
recognized that the Massachusetts 
factory — faced with New England's rising 
fuel costs and growing labor unrest — 
could not survive unless it relocated. 
Libbey looked at several sites in the 
Midwest, but Toledo's cheap natural gas, 
access to major shipping and rail lines, 
and high-silica-content sand gave it an 
edge over other towns. In addition, 
Toledo could offer Libbey s workers 
many amenities, including a school 
system, libraries, and musical organiza- 
tions. The New England Glass Works 
broke ground for its new Toledo location 
in March 1888, and its workers and 



portable equipment arrived by train on 
August 17 to great lanfare. In 1892, the 
New England Glass Works changed its 
name to the Libbey Glass Company. 

The ongoing success of the company's 
glass tableware business was due to 
Edward Libbey's marketing savvy. 
However, his greatest achievements in 
the glass industry were a result of his 
support of the inventions of Michael J. 
Owens, who developed the technologies 
to automate the manufacture of electric 
light bulbs, kerosene lamp fonts, bottles, 
and window glass. Success translated 
into wealth for Libbey, giving him the 
resources to support civic-minded 
efforts such as education and art. 



All Toledo welcomes yon to the 
future glass center of the world. 



Toledo Blade, August 18, 1888 




J. Rufiis Denman cutting a punchbowl for the 
190-1 St. Louis World's Fair. This punchbowl 
is now in the museum's collection, ace. no. 1946.27. 




Workers blowing light bulbs, 1892 



JKuseum Jrounders 




Henry Ossawa Tanner, The Disciples on the Sea, about 1910, gift of Frank 
W. Gunsaulus, ace. no. 1913. 127 



Jin 'yntroduciion to t/ie Jirts 




Frank Wakely Gunsaulus 



f—} dward Libbey's Boston upbringing 
f . and European business travels had 
* — y exposed him to great art. However, 
it was not until his marriage to Florence, 
who had an extensive education and art 
world connections, that the industrialist 
began to understand, appreciate, and 
collect art. 

In 1900, Rosa Lang, a friend of Mrs. 
Libbey's and professor of German, 
introduced the couple to Dr. Frank 
Wakely Gunsaulus, president of Chicago's 
Armour Institute (now the Illinois 
Institute of Technology) and a trustee of 
the Art Institute of Chicago. During their 
meeting, Gunsaulus expounded upon the 
importance of education and art, just as he 
did in lectures delivered across the nation. 



The seeds of what would eventually 
become the Toledo Museum of Art 
were in part planted during that 
meeting, for Mr. Libbey was clearly 
touched by Dr. Gunsaulus's message. 




/ little thought, when we were 
influenced by you to remain in 
Chicago a few days longer that 
such a few days could contain so 
many new pleasures for us. Through 
you we met the dear Dr. [Gunsaulus] 
and caught his charming influence 
and also quite an amount of new 
thoughts, in a channel altogether 
new, but surprisingly mutual to us. 

Edward Drummond Libbey, letter to Rosa Lang, 
April 28, 1900 



Rosa Lang 



useum is 



m 



orn 




IS ENTITLED TO ALU THE PRIVILEGES OF THE MUSfUM OF ART 





Between 1879 and 1885, four of the 
Midwest's greatest cities — Chicago, 
Detroit, Cincinnati, and St. Louis — 
incorporated art museums. A museum 
did more than bring culture to a 
community; it was a sign of status, an 
indication of a city's prosperity. 
In 1901, the citizens of Toledo created 
a museum that announced to all the 
world that their city had arrived. 
However, when it came to the philoso- 
phy behind the museum, Toledo soon 
found itself forging a new model quite 
different from those of its peers. 



yl JKuseum is ^0< 



orn 




Gardner Building 



Cflprif 18, 1901 

+ ~ . , he idea of a museum surfaced in 

/ discussions at the Tile Club, a 
»^— ■/ men's organization founded in 
1895 to allow its members to create art, 
dine, and discuss the affairs of the day. 
Tile Club members took the concept to 
Edward Drummond Libbey who, after 
his recent conversion to the cause of 
art and education by Frank Wakely 
Gunsaulus, enthusiastically backed it. 

On April 18, 1901, seven incorporators — 
Barton Smith, an attorney; Edmund 
Osthaus and Almon C. Whiting, both 
artists; Edward Libbey, an industrialist; 
David L. Stine, an architect; Charles S. 



The Tile Club, about 1895 



Ashley, a realtor; and Robinson Locke, 
a newspaperman — signed articles of 
incorporation, and the Toledo Museum 
of Art was born. A few weeks later, on 
May 9, the museum held its first 
meeting. One hundred twenty people 
signed the articles of incorporation and 
each donated ten dollars for the privilege 
of becoming founding members of the 
museum. At that same meeting, a board 
of trustees was established: Edward 
Libbey was elected president and Almon 
Whiting was named secretary and 
museum director. 




Almon C. Whiting, first director of 
the Toledo Museum of Art, 1901-03 



10 



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useum is 



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orn 



There is no art museum in the United 
States, I am sure, which holds a larger 
place in its community than does that 
at Toledo. None could have had a more 
humble beginning. 

R.L. Duffus, The American Renaissance, New York, 1928 




In 1902, the collection's first painting, Sheep in Pasture, by Willem Steelink, 
was given by Grafton M. Acklin. 



Jlumole Jjeainninas 

>— , he board's first task was to find a 
/ place to house the new museum. 
y^y Edward Libbey rented two 
rooms in the Gardner Building down- 
town. On December 2, 1901, the Toledo 
Museum of Art held its first exhibition 
of ninety-five paintings — all on loan, 
and many for sale — in that space. 

In 1903, when the Gardner Building 
rooms became unavailable, Mr. Libbey 
purchased the residence of T. P. Brown 
at Madison Avenue and 13th Street, and 
had it remodeled to accommodate both 
gallery space and living quarters for the 
director. In January and February of 
1903, the first exhibition in the Madison 
Avenue building was held. This popular 



exhibition consisted of pictures lent by 
citizens of Toledo. However, the success 
of this exhibition was short-lived. 




Although 452 people became members during 
the museum's first year, membership had 
fallen to 332 by October 1903. Attendance 
was equally poor, for that month's exhibition, 
Paintings by Alexis J. Foamier and Adam 
Emory Albright, drew only seven people. 
The trustees knew they must take action to 
ensure the museum's survival. At the meeting 
of the trustees on October 15, 1903, director 
Almon Whiting resigned and George 
Washington Stevens was named director, 
effective November 1 . 



In 1903, Dr. and Mrs. Eugene Scheble 
gave the museum its first object, an 
ancient Egyptian mummified cat. 



OHJICl 



useum is 



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The first thing I want to do 
is to remove from the minds 
of the people the idea that 
the Toledo Art Museum is an 
ultra exclusive association, 
or an expensive luxury. It is 
neither the one nor the other. 
It has something to give that 
all the people want and we 
want them all with us. 

George Stevens, "The Art Museum," 
Sunday Courier News, November 7, 1 903 




AJUJciSEUm OF gJRT 

Hy? 




Dl c 



fori 



€ITho best of what we hear we 



tat I to utv 
-and 



^eorqe 



^ae (QJasnii 

1q)\ 



tunaton 



George Washington Stevens 

<L)/eoens 



|OST men mistake beina alive jor livm 

.he best of what i 
dcrstand. 

€I~Wc labor that we may qorqc ourselves - 
sleep with, the kitchen cat and kennel doq. 

€TA community is as rich as its undcrstandinq of 
the use of ricHcsr ) I 

jO"V?a qrieve jor the few in asylums Jen- the mad tut 
Viced not the -wanton waste of sound minds. 

4LA. qreat manufacturinq centre is a prison house 
unless it provides somethinq for the leisure hours: 

jfEfThe busiest city on earth is fast asleep unless 
it is doinq somethinq towards the hiqher cducar 
tion of its people. I j 

fi^Work should be a means to leisure- in which to 
enjoy die sublime creations of science, literature, mu' 
sic and art. ' 

CDo city is qtcat unless it rests the eye, feeds' 
the intellect and leads its people out of the bond* 
aqe of the commonplace. 

€H Hospitals do much; they make sick men well— 
TOuseums of Art do more; they make V?ELL IHETl 
BETTER. s~^ r T- 



George Stevens's Museum Manifesto 



hen George Washington 
Stevens became director 
the Toledo Museum of 
Art in 1903, its assets included one desk, 
six chairs, a little cash, a painting of 
sheep, and a mummified cat. From these 
humble beginnings Stevens built an 
internationally renowned museum. 

Amazingly, Stevens had no background 
in art. He had been an advertising 
manager, a columnist and reporter 
for the Toledo News Bee, and a theater 
manager. He never attended college, but 
the trustees believed Stevens's creativity, 



vision, and charm made him the ideal 
director of their fledgling museum — 
and they were right. 

He and his wife Nina set an ambitious 
schedule of one special exhibition per 
month, and initiated museum classes, 
clubs, and lectures that delighted the 
public and boosted attendance. The 
Stevens were short on staff and money, 
but long on dedication and enthusiasm; 
and, within a remarkably short time, the 
museum earned its place as the cultural 
heart of the community. 




Nina Spalding Stevens 



12 



CQJKi 



useum is 



OB, 



orn 




The Athena Society, 1904 

Cjarly Success 

f ■; n the museums first annual 
(^ / report, Edward Drummond 
^~S Libbey proposed free admission 
for teachers and students. "The object of 
our institution (the education in and 
cultivation of art) can find no better field 
than in our public schools," he wrote. 

Upon his arrival in 1903, George Stevens 
began implementing Libbey's vision. 
First, he discarded Almon Whiting's 
unsuccessful — but then mainstream — 
philosophy of focusing on exhibitions that 
attracted the community's cultural elite. 
Instead, one of Stevens's first exhibits, 
Exhibition of the Works of Modern 
European Masters collected by Mr. Henry 
Reinhardt, drew local media attention. 
Over 9,000 people visited in three weeks. 




George Stevens teaching Artist Student Guild, 1904 

Stevens also went about creating classes 
and programs designed to draw people 
of all ages and horn all walks of life to 
the museum. In a revolutionary move, 
he made the museum the first such 
institution to encourage children to visit 
unaccompanied by adults. Stevens 




Children visiting the museum, about 1904 

instituted free Saturday classes for 
children and teens; 125 enrolled the 
first year alone, and another 30 were 
on a waiting list. To interest adults, he 
created groups such as the Camera Club. 

Some people criticized the museum's 
focus on education, contending that 
every available resource should be used 
to collect art. However, as time went 
on, Stevens's execution of Libbey's vision 
proved successful. The citizens of Toledo 
supported the museum, not only with 
their attendance but also through 
unwavering support or building projects, 
even during hard times. For many years, 
Toledo led the nation's cities in the 
percentage or its population that 
visited its art museum. 



^r[ JKuseum is JJ* 



orn 



When the cases were opened George 
Stevens and Edward Libbey were 
like a couple of school boys. . . They 
named one mummy Willy, because 
as he was unwrapped standing, he 
fell into Georges arms and was 
taken for a dance around the 
gallery, while George sang the new 
song, "Waltz Me Around Again, 
Willy. "Mrs. Libbey and I were on 
the side lines laughing, in spite of 
womanly fears lest our husbands 
might be catching an ancient 
germ or two. 

Nina Stevens, A Man and a Dream, Hollywood, 1941 

yi vjolleciion JSeains 

»uring the first five years of the 
museum's existence, when 
attention was largely focused 
on increasing attendance through 
educational programs, its permanent 
collection was the recipient of but a few 
donated paintings and objects. By 1906, 
the trustees increased their efforts to 
acquire art. That same year, the Libbeys 
visited Egypt, where they purchased more 
than 200 archaeological artifacts and two 
mummies. Several other groups of 
objects, including the museum's first 
selection of ancient glass, were acquired. 

Several Toledo families collected works 
of art. At his friend Edward Drummond 
Libbey's urging, Arthur J. Secor gave 
the painting De Profundi! by Gustave 




Gustave Henry Mosler, De 
Profundis, 1900, gift of Arthur 
j. Secor, ace. no. 1906.255 



Roman cast mosaic glass bowl, ace. no. 
1923. 1397, part of the huge Curtis 
Collection of ancient and Islamic glass 
bought by Edward Libbey 



Coffin ofTa-mit, Dynasty 26 (644-525 B.C.), 
one of more than 200 Egyptian objects acquired 
in 1906 by the Libbeys for the fledgling museum. 

Henry Mosler, one of the museum's 
prized possessions in 1906, and in 1922 
he donated thirty-eight paintings. 

By 1907, the lack of space in the 
Madison Avenue building changed 
the priorities to fundraising for a new 
building. Upon completion of the new 
building in 1912, nearly 1,400 works 
of art were added to the collection in 
a single year. 




Edward Libbey 
in Egypt, 1906 



^A JCeoj Jiome 




Despite the addition of two wings, 
the Madison Avenue building became 
woefully inadequate for the eager 
crowds that flocked to the museum's 
exhibitions, classes, lectures, pro- 
grams, and clubs. As early as 1907, 
plans began for a new building. 



Ji yCew frfome 











3D ' IS 



Drawing by George Stevens, about 1908 



Gc 



ampaiqn an 



ipaia. 



J7 J L 



annm 



} 9 



1 H ■ 5 



I I 



1 "i 



^<'— - y o help finance a new museum 
/ building, Edward Drummond 
Libbey offered the Madison 
Avenue property, valued at $50,000, 
but on one condition — that sum had 
to be matched by Toledoans by May 1 , 
1908, just a few weeks after Libbey 
made his offer. 

Ten thousand school children donated 
pennies and nickels, which George 
Stevens put on display in a downtown 
window to spur others to give. Meeting 
the deadline, the community raised 
$50,499. Libbey was so pleased that 
he contributed the cash value of the 
Madison Avenue property to the building 
fund, and he and his wife Florence 



donated Scott Place, the homestead 
of her recently deceased father, Maurice 
A. Scott, to be the site of the museum. 

Architects Edward B. Green from Buffalo 
and Harry W. Wachter of Toledo were 
selected to design and construct the 
building. Edward Green proposed several 
exterior designs in the then-popular 
Beaux-Arts style, but George Stevens and 
the trustees had other ideas. On a yellow 
pad of paper, Stevens sketched a layout 
and facade based on five years' experience 
as director of one of the nation's most 
innovative museums. The heart of his 
design was an auditorium for education 
and music, surrounded by art galleries. 



This museum aspires to be the 
headquarters of every Club or 
Society making an effort in any 
way for the higher intellectual 
and aesthetic development of 
Toledo and vicinity. We hope the 
museum will have a very large 
membership, and that people 
will drop in very frequently, if 
only for a few minutes at a time. 
We fondly imagine that the 
museum will be headquarters 
for all efforts at civic betterment, 
and particularly for the 
adornment of the city with 
parks, boulevards, and the like. 

Charles S. Ashley, museum trustee, letter to 
Edward B. Green, architect, July 10, 1908 




Home of Maurice A. Scott, site of the current 
museum building 



16 



Ji JCew Jiome 



There is no greater evidence 
of Toledo's well- developed 
appreciation of the finer and 
more beautiful things in life 
than its Museum of Art; built 
and maintained by public 
subscription through gifts ranging 
from a mite to thousands of 
dollars, it stands a monument 
to civic development in its 
broadest and highest sense, 
crystallizing Toledo's aspirations 
towards life's higher values. 



Toledo, An American City in Portraiture, 
Toledo, about 1917 



91m, 



Ul 



'Idina G< 



om 



ip 



iete 



^—— -^ uided by George Stevens's 

V ^g sketches, Green designed a 

^*~~^S classic building in the Greek 
Ionic style. The facade was low and 
horizontal, articulated by a row of sixteen 
marble columns and a copper root and 
cheneau of acanthus leaves. The majesty 
of the white marble structure was 
enhanced by landscaped lawns, a grove 
of trees, sunken grass plots, and a 
reflecting pool with a fountain. The 
museums Monroe Street entrance was 
set back from the busy thoroughfare by 
a sweeping granite terrace 300 feet wide 
and 200 feet deep. 




Monroe Street facade, 1912 



r 



" ~Vt\_ Jr-J 

l\ HEM1CYCIC J J 




West end of Sculpture Court 



RASEMF.XT PLAN 



1 ' 



02 "Xew Jfc 



ome 





Winslow Homer, Sunlight on the Coast, 1890, ace. no. 1912.507, purchased for the museum by 
Edward Drummond libbey and shown in the Inaugural Exhibition 



SJnauaural Cjeleorafi'on 

o celebrate the dedication of 
its new building, the museum 
sent 1,400 members and their 
families invitations to an inaugural 
exhibition to open the evening of January 
17, 1912. By the time the doors were 
opened at 8 P.M., a line of people reached 
nearly to Monroe Street. Throughout 
the evening, the line continued to 
lengthen; even the light drizzle that 
fell could not dampen the enthusiasm 
of Toledoans eager to see their new 
museum building. At times that evening, 
the museum had to close its doors 
because not another person could fit 
into the galleries. 



Brand Whitlock, Toledo's mayor, 
presented two gifts to museum founder 
Edward Drummond Libbey. The first, on 
behalf of city council, was a gold key to 
the city; the second, a three-volume set 
of testimonial books signed by nearly 
40,000 citizens, was presented on behalf 
of the people of the city. Mayor Whitlock 
also gave George and Nina Stevens a 
silver tea service to acknowledge their 
role in the museum's success. 



This eventful day is a glorious 
justification of the plans and 
hopes of those who have clearly 
seen the necessity for such an 
institution in this community. 

Edward Drummond Libbey, Inaugural Address, 
January 1912 




Inaugural Exhibition, West Wing Gallery, 1912 




Inaugural Exhibition, Sculpture Court, 1912 



tjarlu ^ac/i'uih'es 



.rt 




Once the Toledo Museum of Art moved 
into its new building, programs grew 
in number and scale. Rather than teach- 
ing about art "for art's sake," the mu- 
seum related art to familiar things 
in life and showed both adults and 
children how to integrate it into 
their lives. Firmly established as a 
community cornerstone by the time 
the United States entered World War I, 
the museum diverted its energy to help- 
ing people respond to the crisis. 



tjarlu ^activities 





George Stevens and Mayor Cornell Schreiber dedicating bird fountains in Toledo pat 
October 1920 



City Beautiful Exhibition, November 1915 

We believe that the conservation of beauty 
is a good foundation for the study of art. 

Edward Drummond Libbey, Address for the Congres d'Histoire 
de I'Art, at the Sorbonne, Paris, September 26, 1921 



vjitu Jjeautiful (jampaian and JSird and Uree kjiuo 



, *"— y rom March through September 
* /* 1914, the museum sponsored 
v — y its first City Beautiful Cam- 
paign. Led by trustee Carl B. Spitzer, the 
campaign challenged adults and children 
to transform Toledo into the garden city 
of Ohio by planting 
flower and 
vegetable gardens. 
W. H. Steffens, 
a horticulturist, 
lectured on plants, 
soils, and beautify- 
ing vacant lots to 
30,000 people. 
A local merchant 
donated gardening 
equipment, and 

Children gardening, aboit 




more than 200,000 flower and vegetable 
seed packets were distributed at a penny 
apiece. At the end of the campaign, 255 
cash prizes were awarded to Toledo's best 
gardeners, and the museum held a flower 
and vegetable exhibition in its galleries. 

Like the City 
Beautiful Campaign, 
the first Bird Cam- 
paign of 1914— 15 was 
designed to help 
Toledoans integrate 
art into their everyday 
lives through the 
betterment of their 
community. After 
spending the winter 
learning about birds 




Bird House Exhibition, March 1915 

at the museum, children built over 
3,000 birdhouses that were displayed in 
March 1915, then placed in public parks 
to attract insect-eating birds. The Bird 
Campaign resulted in the founding ol 
the museums Bird Club; within a few 
years, the club expanded its conservation 
interests and was renamed the Bird and 
Tree Club. By 1921, 20,000 children 
were members. 



20 



tjarlu ^Activities 





John Burroughs (left) and George Stevens at dedication 
of Burroughs statue, April 12, 1918 



Dedication of Burroughs statue, April 12, 1918 

Une Miuseum and World War 1 



, "— s 7 s America braced for whar 
fl appeared to be its inevitable 
\~S JL entry into World War I, the 
museum, too, prepared. The City 
Beautiful Campaign became a War 
Gardens Campaign to raise vegetables. 
Working closely with Toledo war effort 
officials, George Stevens transformed 
the museums William H. Scott house into 
Red Cross headquarters, where women 
learned to knit, make hospital supplies, 
and do home nursing. Stevens also 
organized the Belgian Orphan 
Relief Fund Committee, recruiting 
1,000 children in 1918 to collect pennies. 



Throughout the war, the museum 
continued its community- wide 
conservation efforts, largely inspired 
by the teachings of noted naturalist 
John Burroughs. On April 12, 1918, 
Burroughs was guest of honor at the 
unveiling of a bronze statue in his 
likeness created by Cartaino di Sciarrino 
Pietro and donated by William Bock. 
He was greeted by over 15,000 children 
from local schools and scout troops who 
passed in review, singing patriotic songs, 
saluting, and throwing flowers at his feet. 




Spitzer girls collecting pennies for Belgian 
Orphan Relief Fund, 1918 




War gardens, about 1918 



'! 



Cjarlu yicfwifies 




A few Sundays ago four of the 
museum police came into my office 
just about before closing time; as we 
were talking about things in general 
one of them remarked, "Well, I guess 
I like the museum pretty well, my 
mother, brother and father went out 
riding in the car this afternoon, but 
I wanted to come to the museum. " 

Blake-More Godwin, "Proceedings of the American 
Association of Museums," Museum Work, April 1919 



Assistant Docents 



Jjou J oii'ce and Jissi's/an/ Docen/s 



^~\ ate in the summer of 1 9 1 4, 
f s~\ George Stevens discovered 
f-^~ ' several boys splashing in the 
pool near the museum's entrance. 
Determined to channel their energy 
positively, Stevens organized the Boy 
Police, recruiting three of the boys as 
charter members. A self-governing group, 
the Boy Police acted as museum guards, 
ushers, and staff messengers. Eventually, 
the group grew to fifteen boys whose 
average age was thirteen. Membership 
was highly sought after and granted only 
to boys who conducted themselves well 
in the galleries — an incentive to behave. 

Around the same time, the museum 
began its assistant docent program. 
Membership was open to boys and girls 




Boy Police 

who knew at least five stories about art 
objects in the collection. Identified by a 
coveted blue ribbon badge, assistant 
docents guided both children and adults 
through the galleries. 



Assistant Docent 



22 



tjarlu jtfctiuities 



I received your kind letter and so 
much appreciate it. It makes me 
very happy to know that you will 
be pleased with our new museum 
which will give you more room 
and many more works of art 
which I hope you will enjoy. 
Don't forget that Art Education 
will be a wonderful thing for you 
when you grow up and the more 
you learn of it, the happier you 
will be. The museum belongs 
to you so treat it kindly. 

Edward Drummond Libbey letter to Samuel 
Kaufman of Sherman School, March 14, 1924 



Ot. [Place tnat (H)e /come cf Gnu cfren 

The Toledo Museum of Art made it clear that it was a museum for all 
the people, including the very youngest members of the community. 




Preschool class 



I am a little orphan boy at St. 
Anthonys home. Every Saturday 
afternoon the boys attend the 
story hour at the Art Museum. 
We enjoy all very much. We like 
the teachers, Miss Anderson and 
Miss Keith, too. Miss Anderson 
told us that you gave a big sum 
of money to have a large room 
built for us at the museum. 



I want to thank you with all my 
heart for that; all the other boys 
thank you also. I cannot write 
a big letter with nice big words 
yet, because I am only in the 
second grade but I will ask 
God to bless you. 

Letter from anonymous child to Edward 
Drummond Libbey published in Toledo Times, 
February 23, 1924 




Sixth-grade student from Whittier School 



23 



tjarlu Jictiuities 




Art is that science whose laws applied 
to all things made by man make them 
most pleasing to the senses. 

George Stevens, Director's Report, 1920 




Watercolor class, 1920s 

<L)cnool of I)esian 

, " " — y rom the earliest days of George 
^ J^ Stevens's directorship, the 
v — S popularity of the museums 
educational programs was evidenced 
by the large number of children who 
participated. In 1919, the enthusiasm 
had brought about a need for a more 
structured educational program, so the 
museum created a School of Design. 
It was located on the west side of the 
museum grounds in the former home of 
William H. Scott, Mrs. Libbey's uncle. 

Instructors taught the principles of good 
design to both children and adults 
through traditional studio classes such as 
drawing, painting, and pottery. They also 
offered adults practical classes in fashion 
drawing and home furnishings. By fall 



William H. Scott House, site of the School of Design from 
1919 to 1925 




Adult weaving class, 1920s 

1925, the School of Design moved to 
newly expanded classroom space in the 
museum. Classes in industrial design 
were held for local industries such as 
the Libbey Glass Company and the 
Owens Bottle Company. 




Drawing class, about 1920 



24 







By 1916, just four years after 
dedicating the new building, George 
Stevens and the board of trustees 
realized they were running out of space. 
The collection was growing rapidly and 
attendance at educational programs 
was increasing dramatically. Suddenly, 
the building they thought would 
meet the museum's needs for fifty 
years into the future was too small. 



Jjuildina (expansions 




> - , he museum began raising funds 
/ for a building addition in 1916. 

v s Edward Drummond Libbey 

kicked off the campaign by giving 
$400,000. The public responded 
enthusiastically with $600,000. However, 
although plans were set and the money 
was in the bank, expansion had to be put 
on hold when America entered World 
War I later that year. By the time the war 
ended in 1918, the country was in an 
economic slump and construction costs 
had skyrocketed, causing further delay. 

In 1923, Edward Libbey revisited the idea 
of an addition, asking Edward Green, 
architect of the 1912 building, to develop 
plans for a rear wing that would more 
than double the size of the building. As 




Edouard Manet, Antonin Proust, 1880, 
gift of Edward Drummond Libbey for the 
inauguration of the expanded building, 
ace. no. 1925.108 

always, he made a sizable contribution — 
$850,000 — to fund construction. 
Groundbreaking ceremonies were held 
on March 5, 1924, and, by fall 1925, 
the addition was ready for staff to 
unpack, catalogue, and display objects 
in the collection that had been in storage. 
The enlarged museum was dedicated 
on January 5, 1926. 



Groundbreaking ceremonies, March 5, 1924 

I am so glad to learn that you 
and Grumpy [George Stevens s 
dog] dug the first shovel-full. 
This new building is at last ojf, 
after several years planning and 
you and the other members of our 
building committee must feel well 
repaid for all your hard work. 
I certainly appreciate it. I am 
so well pleased with myself in 
being able to make possible this 
improvement that I sometimes 
think it's a dream and I don't 
dare to stir too much for fear 
of an illusion. Homer's illusions 
sometimes become practical. 
Mrs. Libbey joins me in my 
sincere regards. 

Edward Drummond Libbey, letter to Blake-More 
Godwin, March 20, 1924 



26 



Jjuildino Expansions 



T^f 



• »■ a^^fc^M 



i — 




V VI- 



/^2tf CflJJ/tions 





1926 floor plan 






Little Theater (Lecture Hall) 



Print Gallery dedicated to George W Stevens 



Ceramics Gallery 



^Bj, 


' ■'^'^ 


r jf^*" 


/ 






~-^ 


3, .— ^f 


1\ 


i »i ■ 


l— "1 ' 




IffeE 


l^^t 


3t5ftl la 








^iisi^l 




9Hbkbj> 









Maurice A. Scott Gallery, established by his 
daughter, Florence Scott Libbey 




Auditorium (enlarged Hemicycle) 




Gothic Hall (Gothic Gallery) 



27 



JSuiloino (expansions 




Toledo has lost a friend. . 

Toledo Times, November 14, 1925 



Edward Drummond Libbey's coffin lying in state in the Sculpture Court, November 
16, 1925- Less than a year later, George Stevens received the same honor. 



\Jne Id oss of Z/wo ^rea/ Jlien 




Philip de Ldszlo, Edward Drummond Libbey, 
about 1922, ace. no. 1926.86 



>■■ i he first expansion was not 

/ without trouble and heartbreak. 
<-V On November 13, 1925, two 
months before the dedication ceremony, 
Edward Drummond Libbey suddenly 
died. His death was a shock for Toledo, 
a city that loved and respected him as 
one of its most successful employers and 
most generous philanthropists. In his 
will, Edward Libbey left a bequest of 
$1,000,000 to an endowment fund for 
the museum, ensuring its solvency and 
future. In addition, he donated his 



collection of forty-two paintings, 
including masterpieces by Cranach, 
Holbein, Rembrandt, Constable, 
and Turner. 

The city was again thrown into mourn- 
ing by the death of director George 
Stevens on October 29, 1926. He was 
succeeded by Blake-More Godwin who 
had worked closely as curator with both 
Libbey and Stevens since 1916. Godwin 
would continue to implement the vision 
of the founders for the next generation. 




Last photograph taken of George Stevens- 
in his workshop, 1926 



28 



Jjuildina (Expansions 







f *W"^ 






The Mvsic Hall 

TOLEDO N/W.SE.UKA OC- A.F 

"To i_e.» t> Qmid 



Architect's sketch of the Peristyle 



Jlorence <l)co// loiooeu and ^further (expansion 



> ^ — y j fter the death of her husband, 
/J Florence Scott Libbey 
^S JL continued his philanthropy by 
giving up her life interest in his fortune 
in order to pay for two new museum 
wings. Florence Libbey made her sacrifice 
so that construction could begin earlier 
than planned, providing 2,500 men with 
work during the Great Depression. 

Florence Libbey played a key role in 
the design of the concert hall in the east 
wing. It was at her suggestion that the 
hall was dubbed the Peristyle, meaning 
"an area surrounded by columns." Her 
passion for music prompted the addition 
or music to the education program. 

After the building expansion was com- 
pleted in 1933, Blake-More Godwin 







-'C 






/2& 






Vincent van Gogh, Wheat Fields with Reaper, 
1890, ace. no. 1935.4 

began to purchase works of art, utilizing 
Libbey endowment funds. He continued 
to acquire art until the outbreak of World 
War II, including Chinese ceramics, 
Islamic glass, and paintings by Van Gogh, 
Gauguin, Degas, Picasso, and Hopper. 



Florence Scott Libbey, your 
friends observed long ago that 
Mr. Libbey s ideal of a museum 
was fostered by beauty in a home 
where your taste guided his 
interest in the highest expressions 
of art and they realize that the 
museum is the e?nbodiment also 
of your vision and generosity. 
Praise and gratitude are but 
weak acknowledgments of a 
gift that blesses an entire city. 

Tribute to Florence Scott Libbey, presented ar rhe 
opening concert of the Perisryle, January 10, 1933 




Jean MacLane, Florence Scott Libbey, about 
1926, ace. no. 1938.22 

Before her death in 1938, Florence 
Libbey provided for the majority of her 
estate to be left to the museum. This 
legacy ensured that the ttadition of art 
and education would continue. 



29 



Jjuildina (expansions 



1933 CBuifcfiny 





Clas. 






■Trr^^^r^ 






±Tr ■? 






Iv-- .'"1 ffi i r .__L...:..j_^ 

V< L.„ : . V>f Tl U pl-i ; ; o: ■„■! ■• ■ i 



x--|..,|. 



tta 



n>..-c 




Floor plan 



a 




Peristyle 





Egyptian Gallery 



Cloister 



Classic Court 



30 



x^ 



Times were difficult during the war, 
but, along with the rest of the country, 
the museum persevered. In the years 
following the war, the museum 
expanded its staff, programs, and 
collection, actively maintaining its place 
as the cultural center of Toledo. 




Worfc/lQ)ar 99anJ<Jlfter 




f 



Blake-More Godwin 

Art has become so much a part of 
our lives that the right to enjoy it 
in our own way is among the 
freedoms for which we fight. 

Blake-More Godwin, Report of the Director, 1942 



Une Miuseum andwJorld WarS/S/ 




Can America be Bombed? May— June, 1942 



* — \ • nder the direction of Blake- 
[^ I /l More Godwin, the museum 

LXjL survived the hardships of both 
the Great Depression and World War II. 
Hired in 1916 as curator, Godwins great 
strength was his ability as a businessman. 
Having worked lor many years with 
Edward Drummond Libbey and George 
Stevens, he also brought to his position 
a clear understanding of their vision for 
the museum, a vision he kept alive 
during some of its most difficult years. 

Throughout the war, the Toledo Museum 
of Art continued to present programs, 
classes, and exhibitions in order to 
provide a haven of security, peace, 
and rest for all those wearied by the 
stress of the worldwide conflict. 



All men in uniform were given free 
admission to exhibitions and programs. 
However, attendance dropped dramati- 
cally during the war years because people 
had little time or money for leisure 
activities, and gas rationing limited 
non-essential travel. The draft had a 
major impact on museum operations, 
so the reduced staff focused on the most 
popular programs. The School of Design 
and the education department were 
consolidated, and improvements to 
the building — even routine repair and 
maintenance — were halted. The museum 
also curtailed its purchase of works of art, 
hoping for a better and safer art market 
after the war. 

The museum's war-time exhibitions 
specifically featured the art of the Allies: 




Museum first aid team practicing under the 
recently acquired Piero di Cosimo, Adoration 
of the Child, about 1495-1500, ace. no. 1937.1 

Britain, Australia, China, Russia, and 
Holland. One exhibition, Can America 
be Bombed? illustrated just how small the 
world was and stressed that the community 
must prepare lor all possible circumstances. 
The museum itself prepared by arranging 
safe refuge for its most important works of 
art and expanding its firefighting and first 
aid capabilities. 



32 



Wor/cflnJar 99ancf ( 7lfter 



The pillar on which this museum has been built 
might be expressed in one word, quality. 

Otto Wittmann, Report on European Trip, July 26, 1952 




Thomas Cole, The Architect's Dream, 1840, ace. no. 1949.162 



JKaturina Cjouec/ions 

f—p n 1946, Godwin hired Otto 
(^ / Wittmann as associate 
^.^S director. Prior to serving in 
World War II, Wittmann attended 
Harvard University and worked in the 
museum field. At the end of the war, he 
was assigned to the Office of Strategic 
Services (OSS), where he assisted in the 
repatriation of art stolen by the Nazis. 

Upon arrival in Toledo, one of 
Wittmann's first tasks was to rebuild the 
staff and programs. Then, because of his 
background, connections, and eye for art, 




Peter Paul Rubens, The Crowning of Saint Catherine, 1631 (1633?), 
ace. no. 1950.272 



Wittmann was entrusted with the task 
of expanding the collection. Ample 
acquisition funds were available, due 
both to the museum's wartime frugality 
and to earnings from the Libbey 
endowment. Wisely, Wittmann 
purchased "against the market," buying, 
for example, Dutch and Flemish art 
instead of the then more popular works 
of the French Impressionists. 




Polyptych: The Life of the Virgin, about 
1280-1290. ace. no. 1950.304 



33 



WorfJWar 99ancf r 7lfl 



er 




An early visitor shows no disappointment at being unable 
to see the pictures but only unbounded admiration for their 
military escort. 

Museum News, no. 1 1 6, February 1 950. 




J ost~(Q)ar J opuiaritu 



Who cares about $80, 000, 000 in art at nap time? 

Toledo BLzde, May 26, 1951 



*^y -\ ith the 
/ (J J nation 
\j<L/ normal 



ith the war ended and the 
returning to 
ley, transportation 
became less difficult and leisure time 
more abundant. In response, the 
museum held special exhibitions that 
proved extremely popular with a 
community eager to turn its attention 
from war to more uplifting pursuits. 

Thanks to Otto Wittmann's connec- 
tions, the museum hosted European 
Masterpieces from Berlin Museums in 
1949. This exhibition consisted of 
ninety-three paintings that Adolf Hitler 
ordered hidden in salt mines when 
destruction of Berlin became inevitable. 
Exhibited in America for safekeeping, 
these paintings traveled to just thirteen 



cities. Toledo was the final and the 
smallest location, but in the ten days the 
exhibition was at the museum 101,838 




The exhibition British Paintings in the 18th Century 
was brought through Toledo under heavy military escort 
and with much fanfare, February 21, 1958. 



people came to see it. That figure 
represented more than one-third the 
city's population, the highest attendance- 
to-population ratio of any of the venues. 

Another successful post-war exhibition 
was Art Treasures of Vienna in 1951. It 
included works of art collected by the 
Hapsburgs, the ruling family of Austria. 
This collection was also rescued from 
the Nazis by the American army and 
returned to the Austrians. All through his 
directorship, Otto Wittmann used large 
exhibitions to draw expanded audiences. 
This reached a peak with the 1966 
exhibition The Age of Rembrandt, which 
drew 133,122 visitors in forty-three days. 



34 



WorfJlQJar 99 ancf 9lfter 




Mrs. William Mauk, Mrs. Thomas Swigart, and Mrs. Peter Orser at 
the membership luncheon, April 9, 1964 



Uhe JSeneuoleni Uolunfeer 



■ 


J 


jr mm .gJEjIlHi £t|§§ 


L 1 


s 


' 


ijr. j 




l|% 





Afn\ William Broerjr., Junior League Docent, Spring 1948 



+ ~ - y o handle the increasing number 
/ of schoolchildren who wished 

v X to visit the museum, Otto 

Wittmann instituted a docent program 
with Toledo's Junior League in 1947. 
In order to be able to lead school tours 
through the art collection, the Docents — 
all volunteers — undertook an intensive 
regimen of art history courses taught by 
the professional staff. The first class of 
nine docents gave tours to 7,438 
schoolchildren from forty-six public 
schools. The popular program grew, and, 
by the late 1960s, it was decided that 
membership should not be limited to the 
Junior League. Today, approximately one 
hundred docents continue this tradition 
of excellence, guiding adults as well as 
more than 30,000 schoolchildren 
through the galleries each year. 



The museum Aides also had their origins 
in the Junior League. Organized follow- 
ing discussions in July 1957, the Aides 
became responsible for soliciting 
memberships during annual drives, 
as well as acting as hostesses at exhibition 
openings. In 1970, the Aides opened 
the Collector's Corner, a gallery that 
continues today to sell original works 
by regional artists. 

All the museum's volunteers, be they 
Docents, Aides, Trustees, Committee 
of Cultural Diversity members, or those 
who help with daily activities, play a 
vital role in the ongoing work of the 
museum. In an age of rising costs, the 
willingness of these and other volunteers 
to donate their time and talents allows 
the museum to maximize its resources. 




Family Day, April 18, 1959 



35 



J0)orf(fWar 99anJ ( Jlfter 



&!&h 




By eight thirty, children begin to spill from 
streetcars, buses, automobiles, bicycles, tricycles 
and roller skates onto sidewalks in front of the 
Toledo Museum of Art. In a steady stream they 
climb the long steps, up past the fountain with 
its white spray biting the air, up more steps, and 
through the Ionic pillars into the large white- 
marble building. On they go, more quietly now, 
through some of the museum's nine acres of 
galleries and down the stairs to the school — a 
school in a museum where they will paint, hear 
and learn about art and music, or just walk 
around by themselves, looking at the impressive 
collection of paintings, sculpture, and glass. 

Margaret Hickey, "Recreation... Toledo Museum of Art, 
Families Need Beauty,'' Ladies Home Journal, February 1948 



Saturday class, 1949 

Ji Successful cjcnool 

+ — , he museum's School of Design 
/ flourished after the war. Adult 
*>— y classes were held during the 
week; children's classes, on Saturday. 

On any given Saturday, two to three 
thousand enthusiastic children gave up 
their ball games, instead climbing the 
museum steps, eager to have fun learning 
about and creating art. Students might 
draw or paint, study the collection, listen 
to music in the record library, or learn 
the principles of art and how to apply 
them to daily life. Children were chosen 
by their public school teachers to attend 




Saturday Class, 1948 

classes first because of their interest in art 
and, second, for their artistic ability. The 
remaining spots were filled by children 
who showed interest and initiative. 



9 A.M.— The most exciting moment of the cLiy. The 
doorman opens the museum to the eagerly awaiting 
youngsters. The galleries have been dusted, the lights 
turned on, and another museum day is about to start. 

Museum News, Number 142, February 1953 



36 



Une J\ecent J as/ 



^u Pi- 


I^HlI 




H^Hk ^Sa \ r^l £^B 


B* A^BL B^BBv % BBBBBB 



From the birth of the Studio Glass 
Movement to major renovations to 
blockbuster exhibitions, during the 
last four decades the museum has 
adapted to changing styles, new trends, 
and modern audiences. Change 
has accelerated since the museum 
celebrated its seventy-fifth birthday 
in 1976; always, those changes 
were based upon the principles and 
ideals established by the founders. 



ZJne ^Recent [Past 




April 1986 children's tour at 
Dominick Labino's glass mural, 
Vitrana, ace. no. 1970.449 



Une (j/uo/o S?lass JlLouement 



f—y n March 1962, the Studio 
(_ / Glass Movement was born in a 
^~S garage on the museum grounds 
Harvey Littleton, a pottery instructor, 
received the support of Otto Wittmann 
to conduct a workshop to explore ways 
artists might create works from molten 
glass in their own studios, rather than in 
factories. A prototype "studio" furnace 
was built in the garage, but for the first 
three days of the workshop all attempts 
to fuse molten glass failed. Finally, 
Dominick Labino, then vice-president 
and director of research at Johns 
Manville Fiber Glass, showed up with 
glass marbles that melted and advice on 
furnace constructiqn. Harvey Leafgreen, 



a retired glassblower from Libbey Glass, 
was then able to demonstrate his craft. 
In June, many participants returned 
for a second workshop. 

In 1969, the museum constructed the 
Glass-Crafts Building, becoming the 
first museum to build a facility and 
studio specifically designed for teaching 
glass working techniques. The following 
year, the museum opened its Art in Glass 
Gallery, which houses one of the most 
important glass collections in the world. 



Glass seminar June 1962: 
Rosemary Gulasso, Harvey 
Littleton, and Harvey Leafgreen 
working with a gather of glass. 



Harvey Littleton, Blue/Ruby Spray, 
1990, ace. no. 1992.41 a-l 



We have demonstrated that hot 
glass has creative potential and 
that skilled artists are interested 
in the history of their craft. This 
was like witnessing the birth of 
a renaissance for creative glass 
working in this country. 

Charles Gunther, Annual School of 
Design Report, 1961-1962 



38 



Une Jlecen/ J as/ 



Un liis vienx temple antique s'rar.iilitit 
Stir le sommtt inderii dim ninnt Jamie. 
. iinft qii'titi rui elechti plettraiil sun mnie 
St mire, pale, an lain el'tinfetn c hit; 



grate endimiie & regiird uniiimlent. 
Unr llaladi dgfi, aitprls d'llll alllilt, 
. 'ir'rf ml brill de sank agate nil fain, 
<gni li/i jottril, bntoliqtie &*giilailt. 

Stijel naif ifr fade qui ttt'allriitej, 
jOh, ane/ parte nitre lam lis artistes. 
^iul mrvritr tinrofe I'apCra, 



Pierre Bonnard, Parallelement, 1900, ace. no. 1984.280, from the Molly and Walter 
Bareiss Collection of Modern Illustrated Books 



^Accommoda/ino ine CjolJec/ions 



/ D> m y n an effort to better utilize the 
V_ / building and show off the 

v_-<^ growing collections of art, the 

museum began renovating galleries for 

certain facets of the collection. A series 

of galleries, 

including the 

Chdteau de 

Chenailles room 

and decorative 

arts galleries, 

opened to the 

public in the 

early 1970s. At 

this time also, 

a large expanse 

of unfinished 

gallery space was German (Nuremberg), 
ace. no. 1983.80-81 




opened as the Levis Galleries, given in 
honor of William E. Levis by his friend 
Abe Plough. These galleries were originally 
devoted to temporary exhibitions but now 
house much of the museum's collection of 
European art from 
the eighteenth 
century. 

In the early 1970s 
through the early 
1980s, corridors in 
the lower east wing 
were renovated, and 
a Print Study Room 
and galleries were 
created to store and 

Ewer and Basin, 1575, dis P la y the museum ' s 




Room from the Chateau de Chenailles, 
1633-35, gift of Mr. and Mrs. Marvin S. 
Kobacker, ace. no. 1964.34 



extensive graphic arts collection. Begun 
by George Stevens, the tradition of 
collecting books, manusctipts, photo- 
graphs, prints, and drawings has contin- 
ued. A notable recent accession is the 
collection of more than 1,200 modern 
illustrated books given in 1984 by 
Molly and Walter Bareiss. 



39 



Une Jveceni J as/ 




Aerial view, about 1950 



Toledo's Architecture: The Old 
West End, October 1967 



Une JKuseum and SJls jLeiahoornood 



f—r n 1908, when Mr. and 
__ / Mrs. Libbey donated the land 
v_X for the Toledo Museum of Art, 

they made a conscious decision to locate 
the institution, not downtown, as was 
customary, but in an outlying neighbor- 
hood. In keeping with their belief that 
the museum was for all the people, the 
Libbeys placed it in pleasant, convenient 
surroundings. 

As the city grew up around the museum 
in the ensuing decades, the museum 
began to purchase land along Monroe 
Street and Grove Place to add parkland 
to the grounds. In the late 1960s, 
Interstate 75 was built through Toledo: 
Otto Wittmann convinced officials 
to "swing" the highway around the 



museum, permitting it to remain as 
an anchor of its Old West End 
neighborhood. The museum celebrated 
the neighborhood in 1967 with an 
exhibition featuring the atchitecture of 
its historic homes. The Old West End 
was declared a historic district in 1980 
and is one of the largest surviving 
neighborhoods of late nineteenth- and 
early twentieth-century houses in the 
United States. 

In 1995, in preparation for the museum's 
2001 Centennial, the trustees selected 
landscape architect Laurie Olin to 
develop a master plan for the grounds. 
It returns public focus to the Monroe 
Street entrance and includes the Georgia 
and David K. Welles Sculpture Garden. 



David Smith, 2 Circle IV, 1962, ace. 
no. 2001.3, one of the highlights of 
the new Georgia and David K. Welles 
Sculpture Garden. 



In 2000 the museum renovated the 
former professional building across 
Monroe Street into a Community Arts 
Organizations Center. For the future, 
a Center for Glass is proposed on land 
north of the museum, to be designed 
by the architects Kazuyo Sejima and 
Ryue Nishizawa of SANAA, Ltd. 



40 



Une Jxecent J as/ 




Good grows on good, generosity grows 
on generosity, and when this kind of 
spirit continues, who benefits? Not only 
you and me and the museum — but 
all the community — and all those 
who care to visit the museum. 

Otto Wittmann quoted in Toledo Times, Decembet 5, 1972 



Greek, Oak Wreath, 350—325 B. C. , ace. no. 1987. 4, first acquisition of the Apollo Society 



Une Uirt of ^ioina 

f—j n his will, Edward Drummond 
(^ / Libbey stipulated that at least 
v—X half the income from the trust he 
established for the museum must be used 
to purchase works of art, with the other 
half going toward operating expenses. 
When the trust was established, operating 
costs were relatively low, and it was 
generally believed that the Libbey endow- 
ment would sustain the museum forever. 

However, in 1965, Otto Wittmann and 
the board project that, by 1969, the 
museum would be operating at a deficit. 
To prevent this, Board of Trustees 
president Harold Boeschenstein orga- 
nized the museums first fundraising 
campaign since Edward Libbeys death, 
culminating in the establishment 



of the Presidents Council to encourage 
and honor major donors. 

In 1986, energetic donors, led by 
Georgia Welles, formed the Apollo 
Society to help the museum acquire 
significant works of art. Two years later, 
the Business Council was founded, 
building on the tradition of local business 
support for the museum begun by 
Edward Libbey. 

As in 1908, the community responded 
in 1989 to support the joint museum and 
University of Toledo capital campaign for 
the Center for the Visual Arts. The current 
capital campaign, Founders of the Second 
Century, looks into the future to create a 
new Center for Glass. 




Art & the Workplace workshop with Business 
Council partner Owens Coming, summer 
1999 



From the first 120 members who each 
gave $10 to form the museum, to 
Edward Libbeys sizable endowment, 
to the members, major donors, and 
volunteers of today, people in Toledo 
have consistently demonstrated support 
for the museum by giving their time, 
talents, and resources to ensure its 
continued existence. 



41 



Une J^eceni J as/ 




Grand staircase from the Tillotson-Fallis Court to 
the Canaday exhibition gallery. In 1983 the Paul 
Manshift sculpture Dancer with Gazelles was 
replaced by the colorful Henri Matisse mural Apollo. 




Great Gallery, 1994. Renovation raised the ceiling, laid parquet flooring, and added 
traditional architectural details. 



Cjnanai'na [Ji'mes^ (j/ianaina cj/y/es — JlCajor Jvenouations 



..- - , he museum planned well for 

/ the future when it built the two 
^ — S wings completed in 1933. It 
was not until forty-six years later that 
the museum's growing collection and 
changing programs necessitated major 
renovations to provide more space and 
adapt the building to modern use. 

In 1979, the museum began to renovate 
over 40,000 square feet in the central 
core of the building. In the space that 
previously held the Gothic Hall, the 
trustee room, and an auditorium, 
architects Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer of 
New York created an entrance on Grove 
Place that opened into the Herrick 
Lobby. The space also included the 
Canaday Gallery for special exhibitions 



and the grand staircase linking the 
ground floor with the gallery level. 

Another major renovation from 1990 
to 1994 updated and improved the West 
Wing galleries, Peristyle, and Classic 
Court, and also created a laboratory 
for art conservation. The Chicago 
architectural firm of Hammond Beeby 
and Babka directed the project, working 
with the Collaborative of Toledo. 

Both the 1 979 and 1 994 renovations were 
components of a long-range master plan for 
building improvements. Today, improve- 
ments and updates continue. In the past 
few years, the museum has updated its 
heating, ventilating, and cooling systems 
and begun conservation work on the 
marble exterior of the building. 




Campiello Remer Chandelier, the museum's 
latest work by Dale Chihuly. Not yet installed, 
it is seen here at the Columbus Museum of Art 
in 1998. 



42 



,Jne J\ecent J ast 



The functions for these 
two buildings are very 
different. .. In no way did 
we want the art school to 
look like a museum junior. 
It was very important that 
this building read as a 
school of creative art. 

David Steadman, quoted in "Toledo art 
school is a work of art in itself," Detroit 
Free Press, December 2, 1990 



J artners <uince 1921 

he educational partnership 
between the museum and the 
University of Toledo started 
in 1921 when college students began 
earning credits for theory, studio, and 
art history classes taken at the museum's 
School of Design. The program was 
jointly administered and funded, and 





University of Toledo Center for the Visual Arts, with 
Mark diSuveros Blubber, 1979-80, ace. no. 1984.76 
in the right foreground. 




Albert Paley workshop, 1996 



classes were held at the museum so that 
instructors could use the collection in 
their teaching. The instructors were 
museum employees until 1987 when the 
program became a University department 
In 2000 more than 5,000 University of 
Toledo students enrolled in courses in 
studio art, art history, and art education. 

In 1987, plans began for the Center for 
the Visual Arts, a facility to house the 
University's Art Department and the 
museum's Art Library. Located east of 
the Peristyle on the museum grounds, 
the building was designed by Frank O. 
Gehry, the internationally distinguished 
architect known for his sculptural style. 
Gehry designed a structure that harmo- 
nized with the height, proportions, and 
masonry of the museum. 



David Steadman (director of the museum), Frank 
Horton (president of the University of Toledo), 
and Frank O. Gehry (architect) view model 
for the Center for the Visual Arts, 1990 



To celebrate the seventy-five— year alliance 
between the museum and the University, 
an artist-in-residency program was held in 
1996 to give art students and faculty the 
opportunity to work with and learn from 
prominent modern artists. The program 
also allowed the resident artists to respond 
to the museum and its collection and 
building, resulting in the exhibition Art 
to Art: Albert Paley, Jim Dine, Therman 
Statom Respond to Toledo's Treasures. 



43 



Uhe Jveceni [Pas/ 




Age of Rubens (1994) 

tjxnioiiions 

f-^ ven before the museum had a 
. prominent collection, exhibitions 
* — / of various types of art were the 
focus of activities. One exhibition series 
that began in 1918 and continues to the 
present is the annual juried exhibition of 
work by Toledo area artists, sponsored by 
the Toledo Federation of Art Societies. 

Over the past two decades, the Toledo 
Museum of Art has hosted 340 exhibi- 
tions, providing visitors the opportunity 
to experience rich and diverse works of 
art. Among those exhibitions were three 
successful "blockbusters" that attracted 
record crowds and national media 



attention: El Greco of Toledo in 1982; 
Impressionism: Selections from Five 
American Museums in 1990; and 
the Age of Rubens in 1 994. The economic 
benefits to Toledo were substantial, but 
the true legacy has been the community's 
memory of the art and experiences. 

Other significant exhibitions have 
included City wide Sculpture Exhibition 
(1984); Fifty Years ofBabar(\985); 
Visiones del Pueblo: Folk Art from Latin 
America (1994); Soul of Africa: African 
Art from the Han Corny Collection (1998); 
and Sandy Skoglund: Reality under Siege 
(1999). 




El Greco of Toledo (1982) 




Joyce Jones and Alma Buchanan, members 
of the museum's Committee for Cultural 
Diversity, with Roger Berkowitz at the opening 
of Hidden Heritage: Afro-American Art 
1800-1950 (1987) 



44 



{J/ie J^eceni J ast 



The floor is landscaped with 
decorative arts — sculpture, 
furniture, and silver. Even 
the ceilings drip with grand 
chandeliers of crystal and gold. 
To step through the doorway is 
to step back in time, to a great 
European palace, perhaps. The 
effect of this total immersion 
in beauty is intense — likely 
to render one speechless. 




treasures for Uoledo 

f—r n 1994 the Age of Rubens 
(_ I exhibition was shown in the 
v_— ^ West Wing galleries, displacing 
much of the museum's permanent 
collection of art. The storage problem 
was solved by installing Canaday Gallery 
with nearly all the paintings, sculpture, 
and works of decorative art supplanted 
by the exhibition. The works of art were 
hung floor to ceiling, creating a magnifi- 
cent display reminiscent of galleries from 
the mid-seventeenth century. 

Such a sumptuous display of the works 
of art collected from the days or Edward 
Libbey and Arthur Secor into the recent 
past reminds us that the tradition of 
collecting art of the highest quality 
continues to be a priority. 



Toledo Treasures, 1994 



Constantin Brancusi, 
Blond Negress I, 1926, 
ace. no. 1991.108 




45 



One ^Recent T'asi 




Students experience an ancient culture in the Hands On Egypt Gallery 



Jin SJnteracfiue JlCuseum 



Children explore authentic 
African instruments in the 
renovated Art of Africa 
Gallery 



Director Roger Berkowitz shares a story 
with children in the Resource Center 



f—y n the 1990s, the museum 
(^ / continued its tradition of 
^S bringing art into the lives 
of people — but in some new and 
innovative ways. 

A rwo-year interactive gallery, Hands 
On Egypt, opened in 1998. Designed 
to teach families with children about 
ancient Egyptian art, it led visitors on 
an imaginary tour down the Nile River. 
Its appeal was universal, delighting 
toddlers and grandparents alike. In 1999, 
the Art in Africa gallery was renovated 
to interpret African art in a new way, 
providing visitors with learning activities 
and music. 

The museum also interacts with its 
visitors through its Art Library, Resource 



Center, and Family Center. The Art 
Library has served the museum's staff, 
scholars, students, and educators since 
1903. The Resource Center, created 
in 1992, makes educational materials 
available to all visitors, with special focus 
on the needs of area teachers and home 
schooling parents to develop curricula 
that include art. The Family Center, 
inaugurated in 1996, is a space where 
families with young children can learn 
about art together and express their 
imagination through a variety of 
hands-on activities. 

In 1993, the museum responded to 
visitor requests to expand evening hours 
by creating It's Friday. Sponsored by 



Fifth Third Bank, It's Friday offers a 
different program each Friday night. 
As a result, the museum has become 
the place to be in Toledo on Friday 
nights for people of all ages. 

Funded in 1997 by a grant from the 
Lila Wallace-Reader's Digest Museum 
Collections Accessibility Initiative Fund, 
the museum's groundbreaking Art & 
the Workplace program has engaged 
new audiences through partnerships 
with over 250 businesses that belong 
to the Business Council. The innovative 
program strives to stimulate interest in 
art by reaching people where they work. 



46 



Une Jxecent J as/ 




David W. Steadman, Roger Mandle, Otto Wittmann, and Roger M. Berkoivitz, 1992 



JKuseum iDeadersnip 

, ^ ~/ 7 s the museum looks back 
ZJ on its first hundred years, 
V_^X jL it is clear that individuals 
in positions of leadership have played 
major roles in its success. Each president 
and director has, in turn, used his 
particular talents, skill, and insight to 
guide the museum from the beginning 
of the twentieth century to the beginning 
of the twenty-first. 

The recent past has seen the tenure of 
four directors, each creating his own 
legacy. The background and talents of 
Otto Wittmann enabled him to build a 
strong foundation for an internationally 
renowned art collection and began a 



series of renowned exhibitions. Roger 
Mandle guided the first major renovation 
and paved the way for the creation of 
the Center for the Visual Arts. David 
Steadman saw the Center for the Visual 
Arts to completion and purchased 
property to expand the museums 
campus. Our current director, Roger 
Berkowitz, continues the tradition 
of excellence by preparing for a new 
century. And so the legacy initiated 
by Edward Drummond Libbey and 
George Stevens continues to be 
sustained by the leadership of today. 



^Presidents of tne Jioard of- [Trustees 

1901-1925 Edward D. Libbey 

1925-1934 Arthur J. Secor 

1934-1947 William A. Gosline, Jr. 

1947-1951 C. Justus Wilcox 

1951-1952 James E. Bentley 

1952-1957 John D. Biggers 

1957-1967 Harry E. Collin 

1 967-1 972 Harold Boeschenstein 

1972-1974 J. Preston Levis 

1974-1977 Marvin S. Kobacker 

1977-1980 Samuel G. Carson 

1980-1984 Robert G. Wingerter 

1984-1987 Edwin D. Dodd 

1987-1989 George W Haigh 

1989-1992 Duane Stranahan, Jr. 

1992-1996 David K. Welles 

1 996-200 1 Richard P. Anderson 

2001 -present James A. Hoffman 



JKu 



Directors 



1901-1903 
1903-1926 
1926-1959 
1959-1976 
1977-1988 
1989-1999 



AJmon C. Whiting 
George W. Stevens 
Blake-More Godwin 
Otto Wittmann 
Roger Mandle 
David W Steadman 



1999-present Roger M. Berkowitz 



47 




To the memory of the past, to an understanding 

of the needs and conditions of the present, and 

to a future of increasing understanding 

Edward Drummond Libbey, Inaugural Address, January 17, 1912 



48 



William E. Levis 
Stanley K. Levison 
Kathie L. Levison 
Leon Levy 

Florence Scott Libbey 
Edward Drummond Libbey 
Jules D. Lippmann 
Robinson Locke 
Theodore F. MacManus. 
George P. MacNichol, Jr. 
Irving E. Maco ruber 
Roger Mandle 
Edwin J. Marshall 
Royce G. Martin 
John E. Martin 
James D. McCornas 
Harris Mcintosh 
Margaret McKelvy 
Charles L. McKelvy 
Arthur W. McKinney 
Sharon McKisson 
Don T. McKone 
Harold McMaster 
Helen McMaster 
Rene C. McPherson 
Carl R. Megowen 
John E Meier 
Kenneth R. Minichiello 
Clement O. Mimger 
Gerald B. Mitchell 
Kitty Moore 
Southwood J. Morcott 
David S. Morgan 
John A. Morse 
Raymon H. Mulford 
Lynn Munn 
Lawrence Newman 
Donna Niehous 
Joanne Niswander 
Lauris Norstad 
Ann O'Leary 
Carol Orser 
Edmund H. Osthaus 
Susan Palmer 
Grove Patterson 
Abe Plough 
William H. Price. LL 
Carroll L. Proctor 
Richard K. Ransom 
Susan Reams 
Roy Rike 

David R. Rittenhouse 
George W. Ritter 
Joseph W. Robinson 
Jefferson D. Robinson 
Maynard Sauder 
Cathy Sauter 
George B. Saxe 



1934-1962 

1970-1987 

1991-1994 

1 986-present 

1925-1938 

1901-1925 

1952-1974 

1901-1911 

1901-1902 

1939-1989 

1912-1935 

1 976-present 

1929-1946 

1952-1954 

1958-1976 

1986-1987 

1965-1982 

1957-1964 

1966-1998 

1951-1952 

1988-1989 

1980-1991 

1989-1993 

1994-present 

1971-1979 

1957-1962 

1995-1996 

1994-present 

1925-1944 

1980-1981 

1992-1993 

1988-1999 

1982-1997 

1984— present 

1964-1973 

1995-1996 

1901-1901 

1986-1987 

1985-1986 

1971-1975 

1990-1991 

1 967— present 

1901-1911 

1986-1987/1993-1994 

1942-1956 

1973-1984 

1975— present 

1946-1969 

1 982-present 

1984-present 

1962-1994 

1966-1984 

1956-1979 

1931-1942 

1901-1929 

1994-present 

1991-1992 

1991-present 



Mark C Schaffer 
Charles A. Schmettau 
Arthur J. Secor 
Jay K Secor 
Daniel C. Shaw 
Frederick B. Shoemaker 
Brooke Simonds 
Ronald W. Skeddle 
Paid M. Smart 
Barton Smith 
John W. Snyder 
Vickie Souder 
Sue Speck 
Sidney Spitzer 
Celian M. Spitzer 
Carl B. Spitzer 
Doreen Canaday Spitzer 
Irving Squire 
Penny Staelin 
Nina Stevens 
George W. Stevens 
David Leander Stine 
Allen A. Stockdale 
John W. Stoper 
Frank D. Stranahan 
Robert A. Stranahan 
Robert A. Stranahan, Jr. 
Duane Stranahan, Jr. 
Lea Sutter 
John S. Szuch 
John H. Thomas 
Henry Lawrence Thompson 
H. L. Thompson, Jr. 
Alvin B. Tillinghast. 
H. A. Tobey 
Thomas H. Tracy 
R. Scott Trumbull 
Julian H. Tyler 
W. Sinclair Wa/bridge 
William J. Walding 
Thomas W Warner 
Willardl. Webb, III 
FordR. Weber 
Edward F. Weber 
David K. Welles 
Alinou C Whiting 
Brand Whitlock 
C. Justus Wilcox 
Val Wiley 

John P. Williamson 
John North Willys 
Robert G. Wingerter 
Josephine Winzler 
Sandra L. Wiseley 
Otto Wittmann 
Frederic D. Wolfe 
Morrison W. Young 
W Paul Zimmerman 



1 999-present 

1911-1927 

1904-1941 

1916-1921 

1913-1922 

1901-1916 

1990-1991 

1990-present 

1991-present 

1901-1912 

1965-1975 

1991-1992 

1989-1990 

1922-1933 

1902-1907 

1907-1962 

1983-1989 

1909-1912 

1994-1995 

1927-1959 

1926 

1901-1906/1909-1912 

1920-1928 

1988-1989 

1936-1966 

1953-1962 

1964-1995 

1 966— present 

1997-1998 

2001-present 

1974-1991 

1929-1939 

1985-1999 

1902-1951 

1901-1903 

1904-1909 

2001-present 

1922-1953 

1924-1964 

1901-1919 

1913-1922 

1970-present 

1947-1989 

1987-present 

1986-present 

1901-1903 

1912-1915 

1912-1958 

1996-1997 

1974-present 

1912-1935 

1 969-present 

1985-1986 

1990-present 

1 958-present 

1982-present 

1925-1932 

1972-1979